Ethical Appeals

  • Classical

Frank confession of the writer's shortcomings

Honest acknowledgment of the strength of the opposing case

Magnanimous gestures toward vindictive opponents

  • Rogerian

To convey to the reader that he or she is understood

To delineate the area within which the writer believes the reader's or opponent's position to be valid

To induce the reader to believe that he or she and the writer share:

Similar moral qualities

  • Honesty
  • Integrity
  • Goodwill

Similar aspirations: the desire to discover a mutually acceptable solution

Logical Appeals

  • Amplification

Repetition of main arguments

Citing recognized authorities

Questions of degree (greater or lesser harm or good)

  • Extenuation (depreciation)--the points made by the opposition are:






Appeals to the Emotions of the Audience (used sparingly)

  • For an older audience, refer to:



  • For a younger audience, refer to the future.

Recapitulation or Summary (used with caution)

Recommendation for Further Action or Reflection, Which Should Be:

  • Specific
  • Operational
  • Within the reader's power to implement